|Attempted U.S. Takeover of Hawaii|
The U.S. political in addition to economical agenda to dominate Hawaii accelerated inwards 1867–1868. Due to the high tariffs levied yesteryear the the States on imported Hawaiian sugar, both countries sought closer economical ties. Two options were existence considered to better relations.
On an official level, negotiations for a Reciprocity Treaty were nether agency betwixt Charles Coffin Harris, the envoy representing King Kamehameha V’s government, in addition to General Edward Moody McCook, the old U.S. consul to Hawaii.
Yet, a simultaneous force for annexation was besides gaining back upward amid disgruntled U.S. residents. One catalyst that contributed to the worsening relations was the navy’s conclusion to dispatch the USS Lackawanna to Hawaii, where shipping in addition to crew were nether orders to rest permanently.
Screening this deployment of troops equally a reply to a threat of French aggression, the the States insisted that the shipping was at that spot solely to protect U.S. interests in addition to its citizens. Arriving on ix Feb 1867, the Lackawanna anchored inwards Honolulu Harbor, in addition to its presence posed a serious challenge to the independence of the Hawaiian kingdom.
If the U.S. had been sensitive to the delicate relations betwixt the 2 countries, the navy would get got no uncertainty express the duration of the orders, or at to the lowest degree sent about other captain. William Reynolds, the captain of the Lackawanna, was persona non grata inwards Hawaii. He had been stationed inwards the islands betwixt 1852 in addition to 1861 in addition to had earned the reputation of existence an annexationist.
His furnish to Honolulu at the helm of a fully manned vessel of state of war amongst instructions to rest at that spot indefinitely was motility for concern, peculiarly since many resident Americans equally good equally the direction of President Andrew Johnson favored annexation over reciprocity. U.S. expansionist plans inwards the Pacific percentage became evident inwards the summertime of 1867 when Reynolds sailed the Lackawanna due west in addition to on 28 August claimed Midway Island.
In early on 1868, George W. Lendeveg disclosed that a conspiracy to get got over Hawaii was inwards the works. As captain’s clerk, Lendeveg was privy to classified documents equally good equally the individual writings in addition to personal correspondence of Reynolds.
Motivated yesteryear the ask to discovery a fiscal solution to his ain personal problems, Lendeveg broke his oath of allegiance to the U.S. Navy when he drafted a missive of the alphabet to the manful soul monarch inwards which he promised to furnish information that would seek Reynolds was plotting against the monarch. Lendeveg pledged loyalty to Kamehameha in addition to offered his services equally a spy to uncover the machinations of the conspirators; however, he made it clear that he expected to live on rewarded for his operate inwards saving the kingdom.
Alarmed at the extent of the conspiratorial network, Lendeveg counseled the manful soul monarch that fifty-fifty his most intimate advisors were non to live on trusted in addition to insisted on delivering the bear witness inwards person. Since the futurity of the field mightiness live on at stake, a ministerial-level interview amongst Attorney General Stephen H. Phillips was arranged.
Unsatisfied that his tale of subterfuge had been adequately addressed at this coming together amongst the king’s intermediaries, Lendeveg wrote about other missive of the alphabet alert that the crisis was at hand. Arguing that urgency was paramount if the kingdom was to live on saved, Lendeveg revealed the names of those who had been beguiled yesteryear Reynolds in addition to were instantly recommending revolution in addition to annexation yesteryear the United States.
After evaluating the bear witness Lendeveg had stolen from Captain Reynolds, Charles de Varigny, the government minister of unusual affairs, informed Washington of Lendeveg’s treasonous activities in addition to forwarded copies of the 2 seditious letters to Secretary of State William Seward.
Even though the Reciprocity Treaty was ratified yesteryear the Hawaiian Legislature, it was rejected yesteryear the U.S. Senate. The setback halted all progress on a closer economical spousal human relationship at this time. What virtually the threat of annexation? Hawaii had failed to gain the much-coveted elimination of tariffs on its saccharide exports, only its diplomatic maneuvering preserved the nation’s independence.
Official disclosure of Lendeveg’s treachery made the conspiracy to annex the islands world knowledge, in addition to this prevented Reynolds in addition to the U.S. regime from moving unilaterally. On half dozen May 1868, the Lackawanna departed Honolulu in addition to sailed for San Francisco. Once there, George Lendeveg was court-martialed in addition to sentenced to fines in addition to 10 years’ difficult labor. The judgement was after reduced yesteryear Rear Admiral H. K. Thatcher in addition to later commuted yesteryear the attorney general.
Theft of individual correspondences in addition to official documents, which may get got exposed a U.S.backed plot to incite revolution inwards a sovereign state, in addition to the handing over of those documents to a unusual regime are treasonous activities, yet Lendeveg’s penalisation for these actions was expunged. By exonerating Lendeveg, the the States cleansed itself of all involvement inwards a conspiracy that, now, officially never existed.