|Nation of Islam|
Mixing elements of traditional Islamic belief with dark nationalism, the Nation of Islam has played an of import too oft controversial operate inwards racial politics inwards the U.S. since its founding inwards 1930.
H5N1 release of of import African American leaders convey emerged from its ranks, including Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, too Louis Farrakhan. H5N1 primal tenet of the Nation of Islam is that most of the social too economical problems faced past times blacks are the effect of a long-term conspiracy with whites to disempower them.
Several members of the Nation of Islam convey singled out Jews every bit playing a specially of import operate inwards this white conspiracy. While praised for its focus on self-sufficiency too pride with African Americans, the Nation of Islam has been criticized for its calls for racial separation every bit good every bit its oft racist too antisemitic teachings.
Two groups that preceded the Nation of Islam too pose much of its religious too political groundwork were the Moorish Science Temple too the Universal Negro Improvement Association. The Moorish Science Temple was founded inwards 1913 past times Drew Ali (born Timothy Drew).
Drew believed that Islam was the master copy organized religious belief of the Africans who were brought to the U.S. every bit slaves, too he preached that a furnish to Islam was a necessary footstep for truthful liberty for African Americans. The Universal Negro Improvement Association was founded past times Marcus Garvey, who advocated dark separatism too self-sufficiency.
The Nation of Islam itself is normally said to convey begun inwards 1930 when Wali Farad Muhammad (born Wallace Fard) founded the Lost-Found Nation of Islam inwards Detroit, Michigan. Farad claimed to hold upward an orthodox Muslim born inwards Mecca, only the facts of his early on life are obscure too silent debated. Fard preached a mixture of Islam, dark separatism, too his ain beliefs.
At the heart of his philosophy was the assertion that blacks needed to costless themselves from the tyranny of white oppression past times rejecting Christianity inwards favor of Islam (or, to a greater extent than specifically, Fard’s version of Islam). Only thence would blacks find their rightful house every bit the most advanced people on earth.
He every bit good preached that dark people were the master copy race of human beings too had lived on world for 66 trillion years. White people were the effect of an experiment done 6,000 years agone past times an evil scientist named Yakub, too lacked the physical, spiritual, too intellectual abilities of blacks.
After Farad all of a abrupt disappeared from Detroit inwards 1934, leadership of the grouping he founded was passed to his trusted associate, Elijah Muhammad. It was Muhammad who built the Nation of Islam from a modest circle of believers to a national, too fifty-fifty international, force. Muhammad founded a temple inwards Chicago, too later on World War II, membership climbed steadily.
Like Farad earlier him, Muhammad preached that white people were “blue-eyed devils” who had systematically oppressed blacks. He augmented Farad’s teachings with an increased focus on practical agency to better the lot of African Americans too permit them to hold upward self-sufficient. Under Muhammad’s leadership, the Nation of Islam owned several businesses too had pregnant existent estate holdings.
In the belatedly 1950s too early on 1960s, the populace ikon of the Nation of Islam grew through the piece of job of charismatic members, most notably Malcolm X. In 1964, however, Malcolm X broke away from the Nation of Islam too its teachings of strict racial separation.
The pause was caused past times his pilgrimage to Mecca, where he came into contact with Muslims of many unlike ethnicities, too his uncovering that Elijah Muhammad had fathered several illegitimate children with women staff members of the Nation of Islam.
In 1965, Louis Farrakhan replaced Malcolm X every bit government minister of the Nation of Islam temple inwards Harlem. Farrakhan every bit good publicly denounced Malcolm X, proverb he was “worthy of death.” Later that same year, Malcolm X was assassinated.
Three members of the Nation of Islam were convicted of the murder, too it was widely assumed that the assassination was approved of past times the leadership of the Nation of Islam. Rumors virtually Farrakhan’s possible cognition of or interest inwards the killing persisted for decades.
In 1975, Elijah Muhammad died, too leadership of the Nation of Islam passed to his son, Warith Muhammad. The younger Muhammad moved the organization away from many of his father’s teachings, specially his to a greater extent than strident views on race, too toward a to a greater extent than traditional version of Sunni Islam.
He every bit good changed the mention of the scheme to the World Community of Al-Islam inwards the West. Dissatisfied with the novel direction of the movement, Farrakhan reconstituted the Nation of Islam nether its master copy name, returning focus to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad.
Under Farrakhan’s leadership, the Nation of Islam has been both reviled too praised. The publication past times the Nation of Islam of The Secret Relationship betwixt Blacks too Jews: Volume One, inwards 1991, caused a swell bargain of tilt for its allegations that Jews had been at the pump of the slave trade from its beginnings through the nineteenth century.
Coupled with antisemitic remarks made past times Farrakhan too a release of other highranking Nation members, the mass renewed charges that the Nation of Islam is an inherently racist scheme devoted to divisiveness too conspiracy-mongering. Farrakhan’s scheme of the Million Man March inwards 1995, however, brought praise from many for its positive message to African American men.