Nat Turner (1800–1831), the leader of the 1831 Southampton Conspiracy, was born inward Virginia every bit the holding of Benjamin Turner. His woman bring upward was a first-generation slave born inward Africa too took tending to instill a deep resentment of slavery inward her boy every bit good every bit to exceed along traditional African customs, which included the belief inward physical signs of success too greatness that she flora on Nat’s facial expression upward too torso inward the cast of birthmarks.
The Turner solid unit of measurement allowed Nat to live educated amongst their ain children every bit a playmate too confidante, thus that Nat became literate, too with cracking scientific curiosity conducted experiments with explosives, papermaking, too construction.
Financial failures too deaths amongst the Turner family, however, meant that Nat lost his favored house inward the master’s family, too was inherited, sold, too traded to 3 dissimilar groups of relatives, each fourth dimension forced to modify his surname too bring the lower condition of a plain slave.
Nat’s activities presently centered about his lay preaching, based on his Methodist instruction only flavored with African traditions too a growing millennialism slaves flora attractive, since it promised them escape from bondage.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 serial of visions, start inward 1828, led Nat to believe he was a chosen leader, meant to gratuitous the slaves inward a tearing state of war against their masters, too he cultivated the reputation of a holy man, shunning alcohol, tobacco, too rich foods.
Far from restricting his preaching too travels, the Turners encouraged Nat, since they believed Christianity helped run on the slaves subdued too obedient, too they trusted Nat to traverse the expanse at all hours.
During Nat Turner’s lifetime, slave revolts had been occurring with regularity, including the Andry plantation insurrection inward Louisiana, the failed conspiracy of Kingdom of Denmark Vesey inward Charleston, South Carolina, too Gabriel Prosser’s rebellion inward Richmond, Virginia. Nat used his might to read too to accumulate information inward enterprise to report these failed revolts too conception his ain without their flaws.
Fearing betrayal from solid servants sentimentally attached to their master’s families, Nat drew his half dozen lieutenants from the plain hands of the Turner too neighboring plantations too modest farms, too organized them inward independent cells, without the fatal cognition of each other’s existence.
Plans for the coming rebellion remained inward Nat’s hands, written inward special every bit encoded maps, lists, too prophetic statements, sometimes written on handmade newspaper inward his ain blood.
After seeing an eclipse on xiii August 1831, Nat believed he had received a sign for the rebellion to commence. His coconspirators, eager to begin, received their instructions: assemble their cells of supporters too displace speedily to kill all slave owners every bit they moved toward the county spot of Southampton, Jerusalem, leaving no 1 live to warn others. En route, they would gratuitous slaves, secure supplies too arms, too eventually heighten all of Virginia’s enslaved population inward revolt.
The men laid off inward the even out of xiii August too attacked foremost their masters’ farms, too thus ranged outward, striking with cracking speed too discipline, killing the whites too gathering to a greater extent than rebellious slaves to their cause. Interestingly, the rebels spared the modest farm of a misfortunate white solid unit of measurement without slaves, judging them to live every bit disadvantaged every bit slaves themselves.
The next morning, the bloodied bodies of the slain were discovered, triggering a panic inward which whites fled their farms, oft running into parties of the rebels, who slaughtered them.
The Virginia militia, hastily summoned, moved to defend the county spot too ready an outpost at Parker’s Farm, 1 of the concluding earlier the metropolis of Jerusalem. The rebels scattered the foremost political party of men they encountered, only were thrown into disarray yesteryear militia reinforcement when they attempted to pursue them.
Unable to bring the arsenal at Jerusalem, the rebels attacked to a greater extent than outlying plantations, only had lost their wages of surprise, too flora themselves hampered yesteryear the slaves roaming the expanse trying to bring together them. The militia, meanwhile, called on federal reinforcements from Fort Monroe, too these fresh, professional person soldiers skirmished successfully against the tired, hungry, too poorly supplied rebels.
Nat Turner, hoping to rally his forces for some other assault, went into hiding at Cabin Pond, his original headquarters, only none of his lieutenants survived to bring together him.
Federal soldiers, joined yesteryear marines from the port of Norfolk too an enlarged Virginia militia, scoured the countryside, arresting too and thus executing 16 slaves flora armed too inward revolt. Torture of prisoners, including Nat’s common-law wife, gratuitous blacks inward Richmond, too Turner farm slaves eventually led to Nat’s give upward on xxx Oct after ii months inward hiding.
While Nat was imprisoned, his lawyer, T. R. Gray, took a careful trouble organisation human relationship of his experience too the comport of the rebellion, noting that the insurrection had non been triggered yesteryear whatsoever specific mistreatment, only was instead an outflow of resentment too rage against the slave-holding system. Gray afterward published these documents every bit the Confessions of Nat Turner.
Nat pleaded guilty, refusing to acknowledge whatsoever feelings of guilt for the deaths of roughly lx slave-owning whites, too was hanged on xi November. The province of Virginia paid his owners a compensation of $375 for the loss of their property.
The rebellion terrified slave owners too resulted inward the introduction of draconian slave codes throughout the South, restricting slaves’ might to encounter inward groups, punishing possession of printed materials idea to inspire rebellion, too increasing border too slave patrols.
The province of Georgia fifty-fifty went thus far every bit to unmarried out abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison every bit the primary instigator of the revolt too offered a wages for his death. The immediate success of Nat Turner’s rebellion was based on his might to conceal his plans too hold dependent area amongst his coconspirators.
Their defeat at the hands of the militia too federal troops came exclusively after several days, too was restricted yesteryear their inability to secure to a greater extent than ammunition too supplies. As a rebellion, these men compare favorably to modern guerrilla movements inward their effectiveness too their might to throw the bulk population into terror too disarray.